voice over

Audio knowledge


The process of replacing a dialogue in one language by one in another.


Substitution of the on-screen dialogue with a studio recorded one (Automated Dialogue Replacement).


Redoing the recording at Client's request.

Voice over

A production technique where a voice which is not part of the narrative is used without the accompaniment of the image of the speaker on the screen.

Audio description

A form of narration that provides context by describing key visual elements in a media for the benefit of the blind and visually impaired audience (AD).



A production technique where the voice matches the lip movements of the on-screen character.

Ad lib

Spoken or performed without preparation.


The background sound accompanying a scene.


The sounds associated with speech.


The transmission, reception, or reproduction of sound.


The audio behind the dialogue (music, sound effects, noise).

Sound board

The audio console from which the engineer operates.


An overhead mic stand.


An enclosed, soundproofed room where voice talent records.


A large desk-like piece of equipment where the audio engineer monitors, records and mixes a voice over session.


A specific segment of the audiovisual material, usually referred to during editing.


A high-quality audiotape used in sound studios (Digital Audiotape).

Digital recording

A process where sound is converted into numbers and stored on a DAT or computer hard drive.


The sound added into the video during the edit to support the visuals (EFX).


A method or protocol by which media is sent to a public folder that can be accessed from two computers on the Internet (File Transfer Protocol).


A sound stage used for sourcing sound effects by matching sounds with the picture.


The original recording that all dubs are made from.

Mixing board

An electronic device for combining sounds of various audio signals.


The loudspeakers in the control room.


A standard technology and format for a sound sequence into a very small file (MPEG Audio Layer-3).


A machine capable of recording and replaying several different tracks at the same time.

Paper noise

The sound that the mic picks up as the voice talent moves the script.

Pop filter

A foam covering the mic, designed to mitigate popping.

Sound Effects

Artificially created or enhanced sounds, used to emphasize the content's creative and artistic intent.


The process of aligning (synchronizing) tracks to match a voice, to start or end together.


A button connected to the microphone in the audio console that allows the sound engineer or dubbing director to talk to the voice talent in the booth.

Audio track

A single stream or channel of recorded sound in a storage device or mixing console.

Wet audio

A voice or sound with effects/ reverb added to it.

Phrase Match

A dubbing style in which the source and target language recording match by phrase lenght (begining and end) and the lip movements within are not expected to match precisely.

Timed recording

A recording by time constraint where each line or section of the script has a defined time code or duration it must fit/ not exceed.

Wild recording

A recording at a natural pace, without any timed parameters or matching the lengths of lines or sections to any other versions of the script, audio or video.


Collapsing all media elements into a single file.


Saving a file into a certain format.


The sound added in to the video during the edit to support the visuals (SFX, EFX).


A hard drive or a server for stocking up media assets.

Sound design

The use of bespoke sound effects to make media more expressive during post-production.


The process of electronically processing audio signals so that they require less storage space.

Digital audio

A means of recording audio or video whereby the recorded signal is converted to digital information.

Analog audio

A means of recording audio or video whereby the recorded signal is a physical representation of the waveform of the original signal.

Dolby (tm)

A compression/expansion (companding) noise reduction system developed by Dolby that improves signal-to-noise ratio by processing a signal before recording and reverse-processing the signal upon playback.


The transferring the sweetened audio track back to the master tape.

Audio playback

An audio material viewed and heard as recorded.


The audio feed of a video recording, often multifaceted with voice over, background music and sound effects.


A sound from two isolated sources, intended to simulate pattern of natural human hearing.


An audio post-production process where audio is corrected and enhanced by mixing music, narration and sound effects with original sound elements.


The design characteristics of a space in regard to the transmission of sound waves.

Ambient noise

The total sound which is particular to that space (room tone).

Dialogue track

A soundtrack which carries the speech.

Dolby Digital

A 5.1 channel digital film format developed by Dolby that, if optically recorded on to a film, release print in the blocks of space, located between the film's sprocket holes.

Dolby SR

An encoding/decoding noise reduction system (spectral recording) for film sound developed by Dolby Laboratories.


A transfer of audio and time code from the video edit master onto an audio tape.


A transfer of audio onto multi-track tape or hard disk (layup).


A machine protocol that allows synthesizers, computers, drum machines and other processors to communicate with and/or control one another (Musical Instrument Digital Interface).


A final mix that includes more than stereo information.


The presence or persistence of sound due to repeated reflections.


A method in which previously recorded sound on one track is re-recorded onto another while new material is added.

Surround Sound

Sound that is reproduced through speakers above or behind the audience.

White noise

A constant background noise that consists of equal intensities of all frequencies of the audible spectrum.


A disk-based audio recording and editing system.

Diegetic Sound

Sound whose source is visible on the screen.

Non Diegetic sound

Sound effects, music or narration which are not visible on the screen and are added additionally.

Audio codec

A device or computer program which encodes or decodes an analog audio into a digital data stream or signal.

Optical sound

A soundtrack in which the record takes the form of variations of a photographic image.


A hardware and software combination of tools for creating and working with digital audio (Digital Audio Workstation).

Dialogue Editor

A sound editor that focuses purely on dialogue.

Dolby 5.1

A digital surround sound system by DolbySix channel (five speakers and one subwoofer for bass).


A digital optical data storage format for digital audio and data (Compact Disc).

Foley artist

A person who records sound effects using the foley process and stage.

M & E

A file with music and effects, split into separate stems for foreign language dubbing.


A separate audio output for a group of tracks.


A sound reproduction utilizing four speakers.

AV mix

The process of combining audio and video sources in a single video output.


An audio file format standard, developed by IBM and Microsoft, for storing an audio bit stream on PCs (Waveform Audio File Format).


A sound emanating from one source, monophonic recording.

Pro tools

A digital audio workstation developed and released by Avid Technology for professional audio production.


A manufacturer of leading recording microphones.

Dry recording

A recording as is, without any effects or manipulation.

Pink noise

A random background noise which amplitude decreases at a steady rate as frequency increases.

Wet recording

A recording that edited.



Cultural Assessment

An examination of an individual’s or group’s cultural preferences through comparative analyses.

Culturally-Sensitive Translation

A translation that takes into consideration cultural differences.


The patterns of learned and shared social characteristics of a particular social, ethnic, or age group.

Culturally appropreate

Considering the similarities, differences and sensitivities in order to fit the perception of people from a particular culture.

Cultural awareness

Recognizing the nuances of a particular culture.

Cultural competence

The application of academic, experiential, and interpersonal skills to increase understanding and appreciation of cultural differences and similarities.

Cultural diversity

The differences in race, ethnicity, nationality, religion, gender, sexual identity, socioeconomic status, physical ability, language, beliefs, values, behavior patterns or customs among people.

Cultural sensitivity

Understanding the needs and emotions within your own culture and the cultures of others.


The prejudice for or against one person or group, especially in a way considered to be unfair.

Cultural intelligence

The ability to adapt to new cultural settings and thrive in multiple cultures- CQ (Cultural Quotient).

High context culture

A culture that exhibits less-direct verbal and nonverbal communication, using small communication gestures with more added meaning.

Low context culture

A culture that relies heavily on explicit verbal skills as direct verbal communication is needed to properly understand a message.

Cross cultural

To span between the borders of different cultures.

Cultural Norms

Behavior patterns that are typical of specific groups, which have distinct identities, based on culture, language, ethnicity or race separating them from others.

Culture shock

A state of distress and tension with possible physical symptoms after a person relocates to an unfamiliar cultural environment.


Any unit of cultural information, such as a cultural practice, idea or concept, which one mind transmits (verbally or by demonstration) to another mind.

Monochronic culture

A culture where people try to sequence actions on the "one thing at a time" principle.

Polychronic culture

A culture where multiple tasks are handled at the same time, and time is subordinate to interpersonal relations.


A contept that endorses the principle of cultural diversity so that different cultural and ethnic groups retain distinctive cultural identities.


The study of human perception and use of organized space.


Over-generalized beliefs and assumptions about a particular category of people.


A part or subdivision of a dominant culture with a distinct integrated network of behavior, beliefs and attitudes.

Cultural generalization

The tendency to assume that people of a particular cultural group have identical values and beliefs and engage in similar patterns of behavior.


The practice or policy of providing equal access to opportunities and resources for minority groups of people.


The process of bringing together different groups or individuals to create a new unity while preserving the particularity and distinctiveness of each member.


The instance of leaving individuals or certain categories of people out of a group.


The action or state of grouping individuals or certain categories of people apart from others.


The process of uncovering the meaning within messages conveyed through culturally-determined words, gestures, timing, context.


The process of turning thoughts into messages by using culturally-determined words, gestures, timing, context.

video on demand

Media business models


Community antenna television (now Cable TV)


A streaming media service provided directly to viewers via the internet (Over the top).


A media distribution system that enables viewers to access videos without a playback device or following a broadcasting schedule (Video on demand).

Commercial channel

A channel that generates their revenues through advertising.


A TV service that requires viewers to pay a fee in order to watch a specific program.


A service that requires users to pay a monthly fee in order to access a bundled set of content (Subscription Video on Demand).

Basic cable service

A cable TV company's package of channels, including the broadcast channels, which excludes certain "premium" or pay channels. 

Pay TV (STV)

A TV service for which subscribers, or viewers, pay a monthly fee (Pay television, Subscription TV).


A service that provides television programming and other video content using Internet Protocol networks (Internet Protocol Television).

Basic TV package

A select TV package of essential channels both locally and nationally within the basic viewer subscription fee.

Extended TV package

A premium select TV package of additional channels upon additional viewer subscription fee.

content distribution



Public distribution of media through cable, satellite and fiber TV.


Public distribution of media that can be accessed at any time.


The length of an actual broadcast of a program or content segment. 


A data transmission metrics- the number of bits that can be transferred to or from a communication's device in one second (BPS).

Live Stream

A video that is not recorded but broadcast directly to the viewing platform.

Prime Time

That part of a radio or television schedule expected to attract the largest audience.

TV Everywhere

A media distribution system that enables viewers to access the program from any media devise upon user account identification.

Reverse EPG

A media distribution system that enables viewers to scroll back through the electronic program guides (EPGs) to watch already aired programs.


A media distribution system that enables viewers to record the program.

Pause TV

A media distribution system that enables viewers to pause and resume the program.


The process of separating a composite video signal into its component elements (red, green and blue).


The process of combining analog or digital video signals (red, green and blue) into a composite signal. 

Audio feed

An audio signal that is in the process of transmitting from one point to another.


A television system standard that enables a greater resolution for sharper pictures and wide-screen viewing via specially-designed TV equipment (high-definition television).


A device for mixing television signals to a single video recorder.


National Television Standards Committee- a group formed by the Federal Communications Commission to regulate U.S. television broadcasting specifications.


Phase alternate line- a 625-line 25-frame-per-second television signal standard, incompatible with NTSC, used in Europe.


A television set that includes a tuner, an audio amplifier and a speaker.


Sequential color and memory- a 625- line 25- frame-per-second television signal standard used in France, former communist-block countries and a few other areas including parts of Africa.


A television and VCR component that receives RF signals from an antenna or other RF sources and decodes into separate audio and video signals. 


The device which reads the scrambled TV signal and turns it into a visible program.

Linear distribution

A media distribution method that follows a schedule, restraining users from interacting with the media.

None-linear distribution

A media distribution method that doesn't follow a schedule, allowing users to interact with the media.


The scrambling of a signal to allow reception via a decoder only by specific viewers, e.g. after the payment of a fee.

Interactive television

Systems that allow viewers to interact either one or two ways (iTV).

Live programming

A programming that is broadcast immediately as it is being performed, captured or delivered.


The transmission of radio or TV channels from a broadcaster into broadcast networks that delivers content to the audience.


The broadcast of the same program from multiple transmitters.


The list of shows in a time sequence within a program (Electronic Program Guide).


A physical part of a satellite that broadcasts the signal.


A method of communication between the user and the program where the program's outputs are affected by the user's inputs and vise versa.

Air date

The date of a broadcast. 

Broadcast quality

A television video signal that is good enough to be used as a source for a TV station transmission of the best quality.


Programming carried on a cable television, as opposed to over-the-air broadcasting.

TV channel

A frequency band assigned to a TV station.

Direct broadcast satellite

A high-powered satellite for broadcasting directly to homes (DBS).


A repeat of a radio or TV programme immediately following the first broadcast. 


The actual sending of the audio/video portion of the program from point to point.


The process of transmitting the signal from a ground Playout station up to a communication satellite.


The process of transmitting the signal from a communication satellite to the ground Playout station.

Pre-recorded programming

A programming that is not broadcast immediately after it is being performed, captured or delivered.

technology localization



A digital, high bandwidth telephone line that can deliver data (high quality audio) over the Internet (Integrated Services Digital Network).


An automated phone system that allows incoming callers to access information via pre-recorded messages without agent assistance (Interactive Voice Response).

Translation memory software

A software that automates the storage of matching source and target language segments for future use (TMS).

CAT tools

The use of computer software by a human translator to facilitate translation (Computer-assisted translation tools).


A leading Translation Memory Editor used in translation (SDL Trados).

Translation management platform

A desktop or web-based application used for providing a collaborative environment to resources for the needs of localization projects (TMP).


A digital connection for recording or broadcast (phone patch, land patch).

Source connect

A platform for remote studio session recording and monitoring via internet access, developed by Source Elements.


Intellectual property


A one-time fee paid for voice over services on a commercial.


The voice talent's continuing payments for airing a spot that uses their voice.


A voice talent's compensation for re-run of a spot that uses their voice.

Usage fee

An additional compensation fee paid to the voice talent for airing a spot that uses their voice.


A digital print on media that makes a file worthless beyond the means of simple reference and thus protects it from unauthorized usage.


The exclusive rights to make copies, license and exploit a creative product.


An acknowledgment of work done, positioned at the beginning (opening, head) or at the end (closing, tail) of a program.


Payments made by the licensee to the licensor in exchange for the right using their intellectual property or physical asset.


Timed-text knowledge


A printed translation of foreign language dialogue displayed at the bottom of the screen.


The process of creating and displaying a timed - text version (transcript) of all the audio information (dialogue, sound effects, speaker IDs, non-speech audio such as background noises etc.) in a media.

Closed captions

Captions on a separate file that can be turned on and off at viewer's comfort.

Open captions

Captions that are permanently embedded (burnt-in) the video, without the option to be turned on and off.


Subtitles that are designed for viewers with hearing loss by combining both subtitle and caption content into a single file (Subtitles for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing; Hard-of-Hearing subtitles).

Block subtitle

A subtitle that appears on screen for a set number of seconds before being replaced by the next subtitle.

Burnt-in subtitle

Subtitles that are embedded in the video frames and can’t be turned on and off.

Character limit

The maximum character length of a subtitle line (including number of letters, spaces, punctuation and symbols).

Characters per second

The number of characters shown on screen in the space of a second (a reading speed measure).


Creating a time code (time coding).

Forced Narrative

A text that clarifies speech or elements meant to be understood by the viewer of a video.

Bilingual subtitles

Subtitles in two different languages that are displayed simultaneously (dual).

Live captioning

Creating real time captions for deaf and hard-of-hearing viewers within a live broadcast.

Lower Third

The bottom third of the screen where subtitles are placed by default.

On-screen titles

All text that appears in the video frame, excluding the subtitles.

Reading speed

The speed at which the subtitles are shown on screen (presentation rate).

Shot change

The moment when a shot cuts and the next shot starts.

Time coding

Timing the dialogue and/ or audio signals in the video.

Subtitle editor

A software used to create and edit subtitles, synchronized by timing with a video file. 

Subtitle template

The list of “master subtitles” with the "in" and "out" times already defined.

Verbatim subtitles

Subtitles that reproduce the dialogue word for word.

Words per minute

The number of words shown on screen within a minute (a reading speed measure).

Subtitle placement

The position of the subtitles on the screen.




A manner of pronunciation specific to an individual location or social class.

Audiovisual translation

The translation of a text which is used in the context of audiovisual material (commercial, film, video, etc.)

Back translation

A translation of a translated text back into the original language, made without reference to the original text.

Dominant language

The language in which the language professional has a greater proficiency.

Mother tongue

The first, native language which a person has learned from birth.

Language Pair

The source (input) language and the target (output) language of the localization process.

Machine Translation

A translation of text from one language to another by computer without human intervention.

Native Speaker

A person who has spoken a certain language from about the age of 5 and has a standard accent for the region.

Source Language

The original language of the material before it is translated.

Target Language

The language into which the material is to be translated.

Style guide

A guide of instructions for the translator that includes a set of standards for writing, tone of voice and specifications on expected output.


A variation of a language spoken by members of a particular locale and characterized by a unique vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation.

Source Count

 Number of words in a text to be translated.

Source Text

The text that is a subject to localization.

Word Count

The total number of words in a text, typically used to price translation projects.

content localization


Audio guide

A recorded spoken commentary, normally through a handheld device, to a visitor attraction.

Corporate presentations

A visual form that assists communicating a topic to an audience- a demonstration, introduction, lecture or speech intended to build a good will.

Corporate video

An audio-visual, non-commercial content form, commissioned by a company to assist and promote internal or external corporate messaging (training, instructional, safety).


Learning through the means of electronic technologies (platforms, multimedia) outside the traditional classroom.

In-store announcement

Announcements made through a PA system in public areas, usually shops or shopping centers.


A paid-programming, long-format television commercials, aired outside peak hours.


A short music tune used in advertising for promotion purposes.


A method of transferring knowledge as a part of a learning process.

Rich Media

Media that that offers an enhanced experience by including several interactive elements like text, animation, video, audio or games.

Short form content

A content with short time duration- TV commercials, spots, promos, trailers, prompts.

Long form content

A content with extensive time duration- TV series, films, documentaries, podcasts.


A preliminary form of a TV commercial consisting of a series of drawings with a voice over, prepared chiefly for test-marketing.


A formal public statement about a fact, event or intention.


A recording of a book content read aloud.


A pre-recorded message which advertises a product or service (COMML, spot).


The information placed at the end of a commercial, containing a date, time, phone number, website address and legal disclaimer.

Branded content

A content produced by an advertiser to engage consumers with their brand.

Native advertising

An approach to promote a product via media by organically matching the content, form and function of the program.


A short video advertisement aired during a break on a commercial TV channel (Television commercial).


A digital world accessed by the use of a headset (Virtual Reality).


A filmed dramatization based on fact that combines documentary and fictional elements.


A media category characterized by a particular style, form or content. 

Independent film

A film produced outside the financial and artistic control of a major film company.


A short piece of video or audio that is usually a part of a larger production.

Bumper music

A pre-recorded production element containing voice-over and/or music that acts as a transition to or from commercial breaks.

Cast commercial

A broadcast advertisement featuring the performers in the show. 

Program format

The general character of the program, such as entertainment, news, reality etc.


A period in the fall when new TV programs (generally a group of 24 episodes for a full-season) are introduced by the networks.


A narrative media form within a series, intended for TV, radio or online distribution.


A humorous TV show featuring the same characters on each program, generally once a week (situation comedy).

Soap opera

A dramatic serial TV program, originally sponsored on radio mainly by Procter & Gamble and other soap companies.

Live action

Cinematography that uses filming real people, animals and objects to create moving pictures.


Cinematography that uses computer-generated still images, manipulated to create an illusion of movement.


A non-fictional programme, intended to accurately document real facts and events in order to maintain a historical record.


A content form produced for cinema distribution.


A visual art form that simulates experiences and communicate ideas, stories, perceptions and emotions through the use of sound and moving images.


A spot, made by a TV or radio channel, that promotes upcoming programming.


A commercial short preview for a feature film to be exhibited in the future at movie theaters. 

On hold

A phone service used by organizations to provide pre-recorded information to their callers while waiting on hold to be transferred.


A programme of audio files (series), made available for subscription through streaming and accessible on any media device at any time.


Commercials that require consumers to respond directly to the company via phone, SMS, e-mail (direct response television advertisements).

localization production


Cartoon voices

Character voices which accompany cartoons or animated characters.

Character voices

A voice acting approach to match the character of a specific role.


The craft of creating persuasive messages that prompt people to experience emotions and take actions.


The person who tells the story to the audience.


Reviewing the production material in order to detect and correct production errors.

Turnaround time

The total amount of time that is needed to deliver a project (TAT).


The removal, addition or re-arrangement of recorded material.

Audio mix

The blending of voice, sound effects and music into a balanced, finished audio file.


The data that comes along with the media file and describes the audio-visual or other information.


The process by which human reviewers edit and improve the quality of a machine translation output.


A process designed to ensure localization quality (Quality assurance).

Source File

A file that contains the source material in its original form.


The media file that is to be delivered to a Customer.

Dialogue replacement

A production technique in which the original dialogue is replaced with a studio recorded one after the filming process.

Frames per second

The number of frames within a second of video.

Frame rate

The frequency at which consecutive still images (frames) are displayed in rapid succession to create a visual illusion of motion.


A specific file encoding for a particular software, player or platform.


A process assisted by software that turns text material into voice audio (TTS).


A process assisted by software that turns voice audio into a text material (STT).

Time stamps

Timing markers that are added to a transcript of an audio or video.


A voice-actor who is not a character in the script (ANN, ANNC).

Voice over agent

A person who represents voice talents to casting directors and producers.


A non-paying, trial performance for voice talent where voice over copy is read.

Creative Director

The person at the ad agency responsible for the work of all the other creatives.

Custom Demo

A personalized voice talent demo produced upon provided Customer script.

Voice demo

A pre-recorded audio file that demonstrates the voice actor’s talent.


A script with two characters talking to each other.

Dubbing director

The person responsible for providing direction to a voice actor during audition, session or class.

In-house production

Media produced within the studio's own facilities.

Library music

The pre-recorded tracks that producers use in media instead of original music (royalty free music).


The work done on a media file after production has taken place (editing, SFX, music mix).


The person in charge of the voice over session.


The event where a voice talent is recorded while performing a script.

Session fee

The voice talent's compensation for a recording session.

Production specifications

The directives- instructions, preferences and expectations, provided by the Client for a particular production.


The art director’s and copywriter’s concept of a video for Client presentation.


Each individual attempt for a voice over recording.

Voice talent

A broadcast performer, entertainer or voice over artist (actor).


A technique to create background crowd ambience by having the background voices repeating "walla walla walla" over and over again.


A voice over recording script.


An ultra high-definition video resolution that includes 4,000 horizontal pixels and 2,000 vertical pixels.


An ultra high-definition video resolution that includes 8,000 horizontal pixels and 4,000 vertical pixels.

Media assets

Anything included in a physical video- from audio files to music and images.


The process of providing the final localization project file(s) to the Client.

Executive Producer

The senior person in charge of the entire production project.


A video with 1080 horizontal lines of resolution (High Definition).

Hard disc drive

A hard drive used for media storage, either built into a device or on a portable storage (HDD).


The process of production preparation- defining goals, developing a concept and production planning.


The actual process of media creation.


A high quality video format (422, 444 etc) used in editing and exporting master files.


Lower resolution versions of the original video files that serve for recording, editing and mixing reference only and make file transfer easier.

Standard Definition

A video with less than 720 horizontal lines of resolution (SD).


A short audio file to showcase a a voice talent’s or voice over agency's work (sizzle-reel).


A visual, sequential representation of the media within the editing software.


4K & 8K resolution video (Ultra High Definition).

Video frame

A single frame (still image) taken from the video.


An electrical signal that is continuously variable or a media software which has a physical, tangible quality and presence.


The approach on how the story plot is told.

Media synergy

The combination of separate media assets that share similar characteristics and supplement each other. 


A representation of, rather than the real thing.


The process of converting a continuous analog video or audio signal to digital data (ones and zeros) for digital (computer, server) storage.


An accessory voice talent with fewer than five lines (called also under fives), that is not essential to a production.

Full-motion video

A standard for video playback on a computer that refers to smooth-flowing, full-color video.


The amount of picture detail reproduced by a video system, influenced by a camera's pickup, lens, internal optics, recording medium, and playback monitor.


A text specifying the content of a production or performance and used as a guide.


A time code standard for film, video, and audio named for the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers which sanctions standards for recording systems in North America.

Contingency budget

A designated amount of funds that is added to the production budget in anticipation of potential cost overruns.


The primary method of data storage and transmission in which each code is given a unique combination of bits and each bit generally indicates the presence or absence of a condition (on or off, yes or no, true or false, open or closed).

Mix Cue Sheet

A track sheet of notations for footage, fades, volume levels and equalizations used in mixing soundtracks.

Pay or Play

A contract provision where the production company compensates a cast regardless of whether the project goes into production or not.


An object or window that occupies the screen at an aspect ratio of greater than 1.33 to 1.

Media archive

A place or collection of media assets of historical interest.


The conversion of one media encoding format to another.

Associate Producer

A person who liases between a production company and post production personnel.


A common Windows movie file format developed by Microsoft (Audio Video Interleaved).

Music cue sheet

A list of music tracks for obtaining usage rights in order to be used in production.


A digital optical data storage format for software and media files (Digital Video Disc).

Full screen

A video that occupies the entire screen (4:3 aspect ratio).

Picture in Picture

A visualization effect where a small window of video is superimposed over a larger one and the two play at the same time (PIP).


The raw, unedited material as originally filmed or recorded.


The process of selecting, editing and piecing together separate sections of a media asset via software to form a new composite whole of continuous sequence.


The production of the original program or other audio-visual material.


A group of media assets (files, videos, episodes).

Live voice casting

Casting voice talents by attending or remote monitoring the casting session.

Voice demo casting

Casting voice talents by pre-recorded voice demos.

Voice library

A database of voices segmented by various criteria (language, gender, pitch etc.) for the purpose of voice talent casting.


A set of controls devised to guarantee expected localization outputs (Quality control).

multilingual communication

General terms

Desktop publishing

Generating documents on a computer for either large scale publishing or small scale local multifunction peripheral output and distribution (DTP).


The systematic representation of spoken language (or: speech) in a written form.


The communication of meaning of a source language text by the means of an equivalent target language text.


A distinct translation process that is mainly used to describe the cross-cultural adaptation of advertising and marketing copy.


The process of taking a product and making it linguistically and culturally appropriate to the target locale (country/region and language) where it will be used and sold (l10n).


The process of generalizing a product so that it can handle multiple languages and cultural conventions without the need for re-design. (g11n).


The process of addressing the business issues associated with taking a product global (g11n).


Converting media into an appropriate format for the target language and culture.


The application of the same linguistic, production or characters to the same or similar context across all elements of the media material.


The information outside the actual text that is essential for perception and comprehension.


An average number of production output (characters, words, lines, or pages, videos, episodes) that a single professional or a production studio can ensure within a given time frame (day, week, or month).


The American union of Radio, TV and voice actors (American Federation of Television and Radio Artists).

Non-union project

A voice over project that is not compliant with a voice acting union (SAG or AFTRA) standards.


The American union of film actors and performers (Screen Actors’ Guild).


On-screen text or moving images that help illustrate points in the video.


The merging of previously separate communication industries such as publishing, computers, film, music and broadcasting, made possible by advances in technology.


The most popular at the time that tends to be also the most conventional.

Media forms

The technological means and channels by which the media is created, produced, distributed, consumed and read- television, radio, newspapers.

Media products

A particular design of a media form- a program, film, article, video.

Public service broadcaster

A radio and television broadcaster that is financed by public funds and independent of government.

Media Platform

A service, site, or method that delivers media to an audience.


Computer technology that allows text, sound, graphic and video images to be combined into one program.


A supplier of linguistic services (Language Service Provider).

Union project

A voice over project that is compliant with voice acting union (SAG or AFTRA) standards.